Professor Peacocke was Waynflete Professor of Metaphysical Philosophy in the University of Oxford, and held a Leverhulme Personal Research Professorship. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.  He has taught at Berkeley, NYU and UCLA, and has been a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford.

He was President of the Mind Association in 1986-7. In 2001, he delivered the Whitehead lectures at Harvard University, and in 2003 he gave the Immanuel Kant Lectures at Stanford. His books include Sense and Content (Oxford, 1983), Thoughts: An Essay on Content (Blackwell, 1986) and A Study of Concepts (MIT, 1992). In 2010 he gave the Evans Memorial Lecture at Oxford, and the 'Context and Content' Lectures at the Jean Nicod Institute, in the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. He delivered the Kohut Lectures at the University of Chicago in 2011, under the title 'Subjects, Consciousness and Self-Consciousness'. 

In Columbia, he has taught for the Core Curriculum, in Music Humanities.  In 2011-13, he served as Chair of the Promotions and Tenure Committee in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences.  He is currently Chair of the Philosophy Department.